In the course of this tutorial, we have grown our little Kaleidoscope language from being a useless toy, to being a semi-interesting but probably still useless toy. Our little language supports a couple of interesting features: it supports user defined binary and unary operators, it uses JIT compilation for immediate evaluation, and it supports a few control flow constructs with SSA construction. Part of the idea of this tutorial was to show you how easy and fun it can be to define, build, and play with languages. Building a compiler need not be a scary or mystical process!

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Lots of goodies here. It does rely on globals, sadly, but for those of us who like compiler writing texts in plain language, it's a keeper. Does it explain how to integrate a garbage collector? Because that is the most difficult part of implementing a compiler nowadays, especially if it is a concurrent one, which doesn't stop the world on each collection cycle. I've implemented Common Lisp using llvm github.

I've integrated the Boehm and Memory Pool system garbage collectors. It would take a long time to explain - but it's doable. Have you benchmarked against Julia? LLVM has a decent amount of documentation on integrating garbage collection, not on how to write one though. I don't know of any general purpose concurrent collectors which have no stop-the-world phase.

What do you mean by that? I have never known a compiler to include a custom garbage collector at all, much less to have such unusual allocation patterns that it would count as a difficult part of the job. Looks good, but The first one or the second one? They seem like different versions of the same document Since the table of contents is close to being the same it looks confusing.

Second one it will be then :. At least, I HOPE that is the case, as it is more reflective of the core llvm libraries, not my language preference. Anything specific to know in order to implement the language VBA? You have to start with the top-tier talent that delivers enterprise apps in Visual Basic 6. They need to know VBA language inside and out. This includes common representations, type system rules, binary interfaces They should be able to throw the whole thing together in under a year.

I am not quite sure what you are making a parody of? Domain experts, executable spec both parties understand, source-to-source compiler using DSL's, and targeting C to reuse backends?

Is that a parody or a recipe for VBA compiler small team can handle? SolarNet on Dec 26, It's Poe's law for software. That's perfect.

You ask. I deliver. Apart from intellectual entertainment, why would anyone create another general purpose language? Isnt there more than enough choice already?

I really want to, but I struggle to come up with enough features or syntactic tricks to justify creating a new language. What would your motivation be? Rusky on Dec 26, Perhaps this isn't what you mean, but "isn't there more than enough choice already" always comes across to me as "isn't there at least one language with zero flaws for your use case?

If we had just stopped where we were and were content with existing languages we'd be missing out on a lot of useful features today. For practice. Understanding what LLVM is and how it works. Gaining more mastery over the language you are currently using. Understanding parsing and the inner workings of programming languages better.

Find a specific field your language would be useful to. I tend to think that having it be a scripting language eg. Like old Gothic [I and II] used to have justifies creating it and potentially could be useful, since the main contenders as far as I am aware are AngelScript, LUA and Squirrel - so there's not a plethora of choices to choose from.

Though you could find any other field where the language could be used for. Perhaps processing data, or maybe analyzing human language. Whatever you can come up with. Then it kind of makes sense :D. We care about code quality. It is like a functional language with imperative syntax, no higher order functions, but has optional types, etc. We embed it in other languages c, js, perl, Java without the need for a vm. There is no reason whatsoever for the so called "general purpose" languages to exist at all, no matter old or new ones.

Thiz on Dec 25, I haven't read the tut yet but… could I write a language like python with that tutorial? If not, what would it be the best tutorial for indented syntax like python?

There is a trick for parsing "indented" syntax which is not covered by this tutorial: the lexer not the parser keeps track of indentation. Now your parser implements a context-free grammar although the language is not context-free. There is even a better trick - ditch the lexer altogether. Yes a lexer is primarily a performance optimisation. A good one though. First, if you know Python, play with writing your own interpreters, parsers, etc. It'll be slow, sure, but you'll learn a lot.

Next, try using the python ast modules for taking 'real' python code, and turning it into an AST which you can then do stuff with. For instance, you could take a subset of python, and turn it into C, or Javascript, or whatever.

This will be fun, but don't expect to be able to turn all python into those other languages, there's just WAAY too many edge cases, differences in scope, etc.

But for a subset of the language, however much you choose to use, it's pretty fun. Playing with the above ideas in Python will be a lot of fun and you'll learn a lot anyway. Some resources to look for Another fun look at how someone does parsing, etc. Good luck! Merry holiday hacking! Another way to approach it is to drop markers using a preprocessor after indentation. A group of friends and I were hacking on something similar and were trying to allow Lisp syntax sans parentheses.

We created a preprocessor that would wrap indented child lines with the appropriate parentheses. Will help you in a very limited way. Unfortunally, you will need to hunt from several places to go after any half-decent implementation of any decent-enough language.

But do anything first. So, take this tutorial and complete it. If after it you wanna move After all that read, I'm still confused. Because a lot of things are not simpler or obvious in the way how make a blog or a ecommerce site can be. Get clear how the the AST can be processed and focus in that. Changes in the AST will cause heavy impacts in your parsing stuff, and a lot of question need to get clarified first. For example, from the link above: My first questions? How make a REPL, a debugger, how implement pattern matching, type checking, if a interpreter can be fast enough, if possible to avoid to do a whole VM for it, etc Exist a LOT of practical questions that are left as "a exercise for the reader" that need clarifications.

So, my advice: - Get a list of what do you want for your language. Then think harder and try to remove features and get to the core of it. For example: I wanna to do GO-style concurrency, so If that is not solved, your syntax is pointless. That is why try to fill the "core" of the language as much as possible before to commit to the GUI aka:syntax of it. Is FAR easier.

Even if you wanna do a compiler, start here is more easier. Then start to think "to make this syntax do that, how I can do inside the guts of the compiler"?

But you can delay the parser for a while. I don't waste time with parser generators. If your disagree, ok with me ; I have find that use F is great for this stuff. However, OCalm have more code-samples ie: ML languages are made for this!


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Lots of goodies here. It does rely on globals, sadly, but for those of us who like compiler writing texts in plain language, it's a keeper. Does it explain how to integrate a garbage collector? Because that is the most difficult part of implementing a compiler nowadays, especially if it is a concurrent one, which doesn't stop the world on each collection cycle.


GitHub is home to over 50 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. Go back. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. I'm interested in LLVM and want to try simple things with it. This tutorial runs through the implementation of a simple language, showing how fun and easy it can be.

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