ENTEROBIASIS OXIURIASIS PDF

Enterobiasis is an intestinal infestation by the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis , usually in children. Its major symptom is perianal itching. Diagnosis is by visual inspection for threadlike worms in the perianal area or the cellophane tape test for ova. Treatment is with mebendazole , pyrantel pamoate , or albendazole. See also Approach to Parasitic Infections. Pinworm infestation is the most common helminthic infection in the United States.

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Egg transmission occurs by the fecal—oral route, either directly or indirectly via contaminated hands or objects such as clothes, toys, and bedding. Pinworm is endemic worldwide and commonly clusters within families. Those most likely to be infected with pinworm are preschool- and school-age children, people who take care of infected children, and people who are institutionalized. Travelers are at risk if staying in crowded conditions with infected people.

Incubation period is usually 1—2 months, but successive reinfections may be needed before symptoms appear. The most common symptom is an itchy anal region, which can disturb sleep; irritability and secondary infection of irritated skin can also occur.

Adult worms can migrate from the anal area to other sites, including the vulva, vagina, and urethra. Appendicitis and enuresis have also been reported as possible associated conditions.

The first option is to look for adult worms near the anus 2—3 hours after the infected person is asleep. The second option is microscopic identification of worm eggs collected by touching transparent tape to the anal area when the person first awakens in the morning. This method should be conducted on 3 consecutive mornings and before washing.

The third option is microscopic examination of samples taken from under fingernails; samples should be taken before handwashing. Examining stool samples is not recommended because pinworm eggs are sparse. Drugs of choice are mebendazole, albendazole, or pyrantel pamoate. Any of these drugs are given as 1 dose initially followed by another dose of the same drug 2 weeks later. The second dose is to eliminate possible reinfection since the first dose. Pyrantel pamoate is available without prescription in the United States.

Mebendazole is available in the United States only through compounding pharmacies. For children younger than 2 years of age, in whom experience with these drugs is limited, risks and benefits should be considered by a physician before drug administration.

Infected people should also bathe shower or stand-up baths in the morning and change underwear and bedclothes frequently, preferably after bathing. Hand hygiene is the most effective method of prevention. Bed linen and underclothing of infected children should be changed first thing in the morning. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser.

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Travelers' Health. Chapter 4 Travel-Related Infectious Diseases. CDC website: www. Pinworm infection Enterobius vermicularis. In: Kimberlin DW, editor. American Public Health Association. In: Heyman DL, editor.

Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. Common intestinal parasites. Am Fam Physician. Page last reviewed: June 24, Home Travelers Health. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website.

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Pinworm infection

Another putative pinworm species, Enterobius gregorii , has been described and reported from humans in Europe, Africa, and Asia. However, further morphologic and molecular evidence suggests E. The rat pinworm, Syphacia obvelata , has also very rarely been reported infecting humans. Gravid adult female Enterobius vermicularis deposit eggs on perianal folds. Infection occurs via self-inoculation transferring eggs to the mouth with hands that have scratched the perianal area or through exposure to eggs in the environment e. Following ingestion of infective eggs, the larvae hatch in the small intestine and the adults establish themselves in the colon, usually in the cecum. The time interval from ingestion of infective eggs to oviposition by the adult females is about one month.

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Enterobiasis

Egg transmission occurs by the fecal—oral route, either directly or indirectly via contaminated hands or objects such as clothes, toys, and bedding. Pinworm is endemic worldwide and commonly clusters within families. Those most likely to be infected with pinworm are preschool- and school-age children, people who take care of infected children, and people who are institutionalized. Travelers are at risk if staying in crowded conditions with infected people. Incubation period is usually 1—2 months, but successive reinfections may be needed before symptoms appear. The most common symptom is an itchy anal region, which can disturb sleep; irritability and secondary infection of irritated skin can also occur. Adult worms can migrate from the anal area to other sites, including the vulva, vagina, and urethra.

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Pinworm Infestation

Pinworm infection , also known as enterobiasis , is a human parasitic disease caused by the pinworm. The disease is spread between people by pinworm eggs. Treatment is typically with two doses of the medications mebendazole , pyrantel pamoate , or albendazole two weeks apart. Pinworm infections commonly occur in all parts of the world. One-third of individuals with pinworm infection are totally asymptomatic. Pinworms cannot damage the skin, [14] and they do not normally migrate through tissues.

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