The 9th century Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih d. The first of these, the early bowed stringed instrument known as the Byzantine lyra , would come to be called the lira da braccio , [12] in Venice, where it is considered by many to have been the predecessor of the contemporary violin, which later flourished there. The second instrument, the organ, originated in the Hellenistic world see Hydraulis and was used in the Hippodrome in Constantinople during races. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in , beginning its establishment in Western church music.

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The 9th century Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih d. The first of these, the early bowed stringed instrument known as the Byzantine lyra , would come to be called the lira da braccio , [12] in Venice, where it is considered by many to have been the predecessor of the contemporary violin, which later flourished there. The second instrument, the organ, originated in the Hellenistic world see Hydraulis and was used in the Hippodrome in Constantinople during races.

Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in , beginning its establishment in Western church music. The final Byzantine instrument, the aulos , was a double-reeded woodwind like the modern oboe or Armenian duduk. Dio Chrysostom wrote in the 1st century of a contemporary sovereign possibly Nero who could play a pipe tibia , Roman reedpipes similar to Greek aulos with his mouth as well as by tucking a bladder beneath his armpit.

Secular music existed and accompanied every aspect of life in the empire, including dramatic productions, pantomime, ballets, banquets, political and pagan festivals, Olympic games, and all ceremonies of the imperial court. It was, however, regarded with contempt, and was frequently denounced as profane and lascivious by some Church Fathers.

The hippodrome was used for a traditional feast called Lupercalia 15 February , and on this occasion the following polychronion was celebrated: [22]. These protocols gave rules for imperial progresses to and from certain churches at Constantinople and the imperial palace , [26] with fixed stations and rules for ritual actions and acclamations from specified participants the text of acclamations and processional troparia or kontakia , but also heirmoi are mentioned , among them also ministers, senate members, leaders of the "Blues" Venetoi and the "Greens" Prasinoi —chariot teams during the hippodrome's horse races.

They had an important role during court ceremonies. They rather describe administrative ceremonies such as the appointment of certain functionaries ch. The "palace order" did not only prescribe the way of movements symbolic or real including on foot, mounted, by boat, but also the costumes of the celebrants and who has to perform certain acclamations. The emperor often plays the role of Christ and the imperial palace is chosen for religious rituals, so that the ceremonial book brings the sacred and the profane together.

Book II seems to be less normative and was obviously not compiled from older sources like book I, which often mentioned outdated imperial offices and ceremonies, it rather describes particular ceremonies as they had been celebrated during particular imperial receptions during the Macedonian renaissance.

Two concepts must be understood to appreciate fully the function of music in Byzantine worship and they were related to a new form of urban monasticism, which even formed the representative cathedral rites of the imperial ages, which had to baptise many catechumens.

The first, which retained currency in Greek theological and mystical speculation until the dissolution of the empire, was the belief in the angelic transmission of sacred chant: the assumption that the early Church united men in the prayer of the angelic choirs. It was partly based on the Hebrew fundament of Christian worship, but in the particular reception of St. Basil of Caesarea 's divine liturgy.

John Chrysostom , since Archbishop of Constantinople, abridged the long formular of Basil's divine liturgy for the local cathedral rite. The notion of angelic chant is certainly older than the Apocalypse account Revelation —11 , for the musical function of angels as conceived in the Old Testament is brought out clearly by Isaiah —4 and Ezekiel Most significant in the fact, outlined in Exodus 25, that the pattern for the earthly worship of Israel was derived from heaven.

It receives acknowledgement later in the liturgical treatises of Nicolas Kavasilas and Symeon of Thessaloniki. The second, less permanent, concept was that of koinonia or " communion ". This was less permanent because, after the fourth century, when it was analyzed and integrated into a theological system, the bond and "oneness" that united the clergy and the faithful in liturgical worship was less potent. It is, however, one of the key ideas for understanding a number of realities for which we now have different names.

With regard to musical performance, this concept of koinonia may be applied to the primitive use of the word choros. It referred, not to a separate group within the congregation entrusted with musical responsibilities, but to the congregation as a whole. Ignatius wrote to the Church in Ephesus in the following way:. You must every man of you join in a choir so that being harmonious and in concord and taking the keynote of God in unison, you may sing with one voice through Jesus Christ to the Father, so that He may hear you and through your good deeds recognize that you are parts of His Son.

A marked feature of liturgical ceremony was the active part taken by the people in its performance, particularly in the recitation or chanting of hymns, responses and psalms. The terms choros, koinonia and ekklesia were used synonymously in the early Byzantine Church. As a result, the early Church borrowed this word from classical antiquity as a designation for the congregation, at worship and in song in heaven and on earth both.

Concerning the practice of psalm recitation, the recitation by a congregation of educated chanters is already testified by the soloistic recitation of abridged psalms by the end of the 4th century. Later it was called prokeimenon. Hence, there was an early practice of simple psalmody , which was used for the recitation of canticles and the psalter, and usually Byzantine psalters have the 15 canticles in an appendix, but the simple psalmody itself was not notated before the 13th century, in dialogue or papadikai treatises preceding the book sticheraria.

Between the recited psalms and canticles troparia were recited according to the same more or less elaborated psalmody. This context relates antiphonal chant genres including antiphona kind of introits , trisagion and its substitutes, prokeimenon , allelouiarion , the later cherubikon and its substitutes, the koinonikon cycles as they were created during the 9th century.

In most of the cases they were simply troparia and their repetitions or segments were given by the antiphonon, whether it was sung or not, its three sections of the psalmodic recitation were separated by the troparion.

The fashion in all cathedral rites of the Mediterranean was a new emphasis on the psalter. In older ceremonies before Christianity became the religion of empires, the recitation of the biblical odes mainly taken from the Old Testament was much more important.

They did not disappear in certain cathedral rites such as the Milanese and the Constantinopolitan rite. Before long, however, a clericalizing tendency soon began to manifest itself in linguistic usage, particularly after the Council of Laodicea , whose fifteenth Canon permitted only the canonical psaltai , "chanters:", to sing at the services.

The word choros came to refer to the special priestly function in the liturgy — just as, architecturally speaking, the choir became a reserved area near the sanctuary—and choros eventually became the equivalent of the word kleros the pulpits of two or even five choirs.

The common term for a short hymn of one stanza, or one of a series of stanzas, is troparion. As a refrain interpolated between psalm verses it had the same function as the antiphon in Western plainchant. The simplest troparion was probably "allelouia", and similar to troparia like the trisagion or the cherubikon or the koinonika a lot of troparia became a chant genre of their own.

A famous example, whose existence is attested as early as the 4th century, is the Easter Vespers hymn, Phos Hilaron "O Resplendent Light". Perhaps the earliest set of troparia of known authorship are those of the monk Auxentios first half of the 5th century , attested in his biography but not preserved in any later Byzantine order of service.

The development of large scale hymnographic forms begins in the fifth century with the rise of the kontakion , a long and elaborate metrical sermon, reputedly of Syriac origin, which finds its acme in the work of St.

Romanos the Melodist 6th century. This dramatic homily which could treat various subjects, theological and hagiographical ones as well as imperial propaganda, comprises some 20 to 30 stanzas oikoi "houses" and was sung in a rather simple style with emphasise on the understanding of the recent texts. Romanos' original melodies were not delivered by notated sources dating back to the 6th century, the earliest notated source is the Tipografsky Ustav written about During the period of psaltic art 14th and 15th centuries , the interest of kalophonic elaboration was focussed on one particular kontakion which was still celebrated: the Akathist hymn.

An exception was John Kladas who contributed also with kalophonic settings of other kontakia of the repertoire. Some of them had a clear liturgical assignation, others not, so that they can only be understood from the background of the later book of ceremonies.

Some of Romanos creations can be even regarded as political propaganda in connection with the new and very fast reconstruction of the famous Hagia Sophia by Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles.

A quarter of Constantinople had been burnt down during a civil war. Justinian had ordered a massacre at the hippodrome , because his imperial antagonists who were affiliated to the former dynasty, had been organised as a chariot team. He needed a kind of mass propaganda to justify the imperial violence against the public.

In the kontakion "On earthquakes and conflagration" H. According to Johannes Koder the kontakion was celebrated the first time during Lenten period in , about ten months before the official inauguration of the new built Hagia Sophia on 27 December. During the second half of the sixth century, there was a change in Byzantine sacred architecture , because the altar used for the preparation of the eucharist had been removed from the bema.

The separation of the prothesis where the bread was consecrated during a separated service called proskomide , required a procession of the gifts at the beginning of the second eucharist part of the divine liturgy. With this change came also the dramaturgy of the three doors in a choir screen before the bema sanctuary. They were closed and opened during the ceremony.

Antonin , a Russian monk and pilgrim of Novgorod , described the procession of choirs during Orthros and the divine liturgy, when he visited Constantinople in December When they sing Lauds at Hagia Sophia, they sing first in the narthex before the royal doors; then they enter to sing in the middle of the church; then the gates of Paradise are opened and they sing a third time before the altar. On Sundays and feastdays the Patriarch assists at Lauds and at the Liturgy; at this time he blesses the singers from gallery, and ceasing to sing, they proclaim the polychronia; then they begin to sing again as harmoniously and as sweetly as the angels, and they sing in this fashion until the Liturgy.

After Lauds they put off their vestments and go out to receive the blessing of the Patriarch; then the preliminary lessons are read in the ambo; when these are over the Liturgy begins, and at the end of the service the chief priest recites the so-called prayer of the ambo within the sanctuary while the second priest recites in the church, beyond the ambo; when they have finished the prayer, both bless the people.

Vespers are said in the same fashion, beginning at an early hour. By the end of the seventh century with the reform of , the kontakion, Romanos' genre was overshadowed by a certain monastic type of homiletic hymn, the canon and its prominent role it played within the cathedral rite of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. Essentially, the kanon, as it is known since 8th century, is a hymnodic complex composed of nine odes that were originally attached to the nine Biblical canticles and to which they were related by means of corresponding poetic allusion or textual quotation see the section about the biblical odes.

Out of the custom of canticle recitation, monastic reformers at Constantinople, Jerusalem and Mount Sinai developed a new homiletic genre whose verses in the complex ode meter were composed over a melodic model: the heirmos. During the 7th century kanons at the Patriarchate of Jerusalem still consisted of the two or three odes throughout the year cycle, and often combined different echoi. The form common today of nine or eight odes was introduced by composers within the school of Andrew of Crete at Mar Saba.

The nine odes of the kanon were dissimilar by their metrum. Consequently, an entire heirmos comprises nine independent melodies eight, because the second ode was often omitted outside Lenten period , which are united musically by the same echos and its melos, and sometimes even textually by references to the general theme of the liturgical occasion—especially in acrosticha composed over a given heirmos , but dedicated to a particular day of the menaion.

Until the 11th century, the common book of hymns was the tropologion and it had no other musical notation than a modal signature and combined different hymn genres like troparion , sticheron , and canon. The earliest tropologion was already composed by Severus of Antioch , Paul of Edessa and Ioannes Psaltes at the Patriarchate of Antioch between and Their tropologion has only survived in Syriac translation and revised by Jacob of Edessa. After the octoechos reform of the Quinisext Council in , monks at Mar Saba continued the hymn project under Andrew's instruction, especially by his most gifted followers John of Damascus and Cosmas of Jerusalem.

These various layers of the Hagiopolitan tropologion since the 5th century have mainly survived in a Georgian type of tropologion called "Iadgari" whose oldest copies can be dated back to the 9th century.

Today the second ode is usually omitted while the great kanon attributed to John of Damascus includes it , but medieval heirmologia rather testify the custom, that the extremely strict spirit of Moses' last prayer was especially recited during Lenten tide, when the number of odes was limited to three odes triodion , especially patriarch Germanus I contributed with many own compositions of the second ode. According to Alexandra Nikiforova only two of 64 canons composed by Germanus I are present in the current print editions, but manuscripts have transmitted his hymnographic heritage.

During the 9th-century reforms of the Stoudios Monastery , the reformers favoured Hagiopolitan composers and customs in their new notated chant books heirmologion and sticherarion , but they also added substantial parts to the tropologion and re-organised the cycle of movable and immovable feasts especially Lent, the triodion, and its scriptural lessons.

Their melodies were originally preserved in the tropologion. During the 10th century two new notated chant books were created at the Stoudios Monastery, which were supposed to replace the tropologion:. These books were not only provided with musical notation, with respect to the former tropologia they were also considerably more elaborated and varied as a collection of various local traditions.

In practice it meant that only a small part of the repertory was really chosen to be sung during the divine services. The combination of Constantinopolitan and Palestine customs must be also understood on the base of the political history. Especially the first generation around Theodore Studites and Joseph the Confessor , and the second around Joseph the Hymnographer suffered from the first and the second crisis of iconoclasm.

The community around Theodore could revive monastic life at the abandoned Stoudios Monastery, but he had to leave Constantinople frequently in order to escape political persecution. During this period, the Patriarchates of Jerusalem and Alexandria especially Sinai remained centres of the hymnographic reform. Concerning the Old Byzantine notation, Constantinople and the area between Jerusalem and Sinai can be clearly distinguished. The earliest notation used for the books sticherarion and was theta notation, but it was soon replaced by palimpsests with more detailed forms between Coislin Palestine and Chartres notation Constantinople.

On the other hand, Constantinople as well as other parts of the Empire like Italy encouraged also privileged women to found female monastic communities and certain hegumeniai also contributed to the hymnographic reform. Another project of the Studites' reform was the organisation of the New Testament Epistle, Gospel reading cycles, especially its hymns during the period of the triodion between the pre-Lenten Meatfare Sunday called "Apokreo" and the Holy Week.

They imported Hagiopolitan customs of Jerusalem like the Great Vesper, especially for the movable cycle between Lent and Allsaints triodion and pentekostarion , including a Sunday of Orthodoxy which celebrated the triumph over iconoclasm on the first Sunday of Lent.



Songs performed by the Lilly Female vocal duet resemble the old times by its spiritual and creative beauties, and by their wonderful tones they are almost similar with the old church singing, of the ancient Byzantine chanting. She is specially fond of the spiritual songs of the Holy Bishop Nikolaj, created between the two world wars and recorded in the memory of nuns. She works as the theology teacher and music pedagogue, and establishes a number of choirs which cherish the spiritual music. Sladjana performs music along the school of the world recognized singers of Zinka Kunc and Stanoje Jakovic. Aleksandra Borota was born in and since lives in Belgrade.


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