The Upanishad belongs to the Tandya school of the Samaveda. It is one of the largest Upanishadic compilations, and has eight Prapathakas literally lectures, chapters , each with many volumes, and each volume contains many verses. As part of the poetic and chants-focussed Samaveda, the broad unifying theme of the Upanishad is the importance of speech, language, song and chants to man's quest for knowledge and salvation, to metaphysical premises and questions, as well as to rituals. The Chandogya Upanishad is notable for its lilting metric structure, its mention of ancient cultural elements such as musical instruments, and embedded philosophical premises that later served as foundation for Vedanta school of Hinduism. Adi Shankara , for example, cited Chandogya Upanishad times in his Vedanta Sutra Bhasya , more than any other ancient text.
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The Upanishad belongs to the Tandya school of the Samaveda. It is one of the largest Upanishadic compilations, and has eight Prapathakas literally lectures, chapters , each with many volumes, and each volume contains many verses. As part of the poetic and chants-focussed Samaveda, the broad unifying theme of the Upanishad is the importance of speech, language, song and chants to man's quest for knowledge and salvation, to metaphysical premises and questions, as well as to rituals.
The Chandogya Upanishad is notable for its lilting metric structure, its mention of ancient cultural elements such as musical instruments, and embedded philosophical premises that later served as foundation for Vedanta school of Hinduism. Adi Shankara , for example, cited Chandogya Upanishad times in his Vedanta Sutra Bhasya , more than any other ancient text.
The name of the Upanishad is derived from the word Chanda or chandas , which means "poetic meter, prosody". The text is sometimes known as Chandogyopanishad. Chandogya Upanishad was in all likelihood composed in the earlier part of 1st millennium BCE, and is one of the oldest Upanishads.
The chronology and authorship of Chandogya Upanishad, along with Brihadaranyaka and Kaushitaki Upanishads, is further complicated because they are compiled anthologies of literature that must have existed as independent texts before they became part of these Upanishads. According to a review by Olivelle,  Chandogya was composed by 7th or 6th century BCE, give or take a century or so.
The first chapter includes 13 volumes each with varying number of verses, the second chapter has 24 volumes, the third chapter contains 19 volumes, the fourth is composed of 17 volumes, the fifth has 24, the sixth chapter has 16 volumes, the seventh includes 26 volumes, and the eight chapter is last with 15 volumes. The Upanishad comprises the last eight chapters of a ten chapter Chandogya Brahmana text. The last eight chapters are long, and are called the Chandogya Upanishad.
A notable structural feature of Chandogya Upanishad is that it contains many nearly identical passages and stories also found in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, but in precise meter. The Chandogya Upanishad, like other Upanishads, was a living document. Every chapter shows evidence of insertion or interpolation at a later age, because the structure, meter, grammar, style and content is inconsistent with what precedes or follows the suspect content and section.
Additionally, supplements were likely attached to various volumes in a different age. Klaus Witz  structurally divides the Chandogya Upanishad into three natural groups. The third group consists of chapters VI-VIII that deal with metaphysical questions such as the nature of reality and soul. The Chandogya Upanishad opens with the recommendation that "let a man meditate on Om".
It is the symbol of awe, of reverence, of threefold knowledge because Adhvaryu invokes it, the Hotr recites it, and Udgatr sings it. The legend in section 1. Life-principle is free from evil, it is inherently good.
Om is the Udgitha, the symbol of life-principle in man. The Chandogya Upanishad, in eighth and ninth volumes of the first chapter describes the debate between three men proficient in Udgitha , about the origins and support of Udgitha and all of empirical existence. What is the origin of this world? Verily, all things here arise out of space. They disappear back into space, for space alone is greater than these, space is the final goal.
This is the most excellent Udgitha. This is endless. Max Muller notes that the term "space" above, was later asserted in the Vedanta Sutra verse 1. The tenth through twelfth volumes of the first Prapathaka of Chandogya Upanishad describe a legend about priests and it criticizes how they go about reciting verses and singing hymns without any idea what they mean or the divine principle they signify. The verses 1. The dogs ask, "Sir, sing and get us food, we are hungry". Next day, the dogs come back, each dog holding the tail of the preceding dog in his mouth, just like priests do holding the gown of preceding priest when they walk in procession.
Om, let us drink! Lord of food, bring hither food, bring it! Such satire is not unusual in Indian literature and scriptures, and similar emphasis for understanding over superficial recitations is found in other ancient texts, such as chapter 7. The 13th volume of the first chapter lists mystical meanings in the structure and sounds of a chant.
The thirteen syllables listed are Stobhaksharas , sounds used in musical recitation of hymns, chants and songs. The fourth verse of the 13th volume uses the word Upanishad , which Max Muller translates as "secret doctrine",   and Patrick Olivelle translates as "hidden connections". Volumes 2 through 7 of the second Prapathaka present analogies between various elements of the universe and elements of a chant. The day and daily life of a human being is mapped to the seven-fold structure in volumes 2.
The 22nd volume of the second chapter discusses the structure of vowels svara , consonants sparsa and sibilants ushman. The Chandogya Upanishad in volume 23 of chapter 2 provides one of the earliest expositions on the broad, complex meaning of Vedic concept dharma.
But the Brahmasamstha — one who is firmly grounded in Brahman — alone achieves immortality. This passage has been widely cited by ancient and medieval Sanskrit scholars as the fore-runner to the asrama or age-based stages of dharmic life in Hinduism. Paul Deussen notes that the Chandogya Upanishad, in the above verse, is not presenting these stages as sequential, but rather as equal. Other scholars point to the structure of the verse and its explicit "three branches" declaration.
Beyond chronological concerns, the verse has provided a foundation for Vedanta school's emphasis on ethics, education, simple living, social responsibility, and the ultimate goal of life as moksha through Brahman-knowledge. The discussion of ethics and moral conduct in man's life re-appears in other chapters of Chandogya Upanishad, such as in section 3. The Chandogya Upanishad presents the Madhu Vidya honey knowledge in first eleven volumes of the third chapter.
The simile of "honey" is extensively developed, with Vedas, the Itihasa and mythological stories, and the Upanishads are described as flowers. The rising and setting of the sun is likened to man's cyclic state of clarity and confusion, while the spiritual state of knowing Upanishadic insight of Brahman is described by Chandogya Upanishad as being one with Sun, a state of permanent day of perfect knowledge, the day which knows no night.
Gayatri mantra  is the symbol of the Brahman - the essence of everything, states volume 3. The first six verses of the thirteenth volume of Chandogya's third chapter state a theory of Svarga heaven as human body, whose doorkeepers are eyes, ears, speech organs, mind and breath. To reach Svarga , asserts the text, understand these doorkeepers. This premise, that the human body is the heaven world, and that Brahman highest reality is identical to the Atman Soul, Self within a human being is at the foundation of Vedanta philosophy.
This whole universe is Brahman. In tranquility, let one worship It, as Tajjalan that from which he came forth, as that into which he will be dissolved, as that in which he breathes. Let him therefore have for himself this will, this purpose: The intelligent, whose body is imbued with life-principle, whose form is light, whose thoughts are driven by truth, whose self is like space invisible but ever present , from whom all works, all desires, all sensory feelings encompassing this whole world, the silent, the unconcerned, this is me, my Self, my Soul within my heart.
This is my Soul in the innermost heart, greater than the earth, greater than the aerial space, greater than these worlds. This Soul, this Self of mine is that Brahman. Paul Deussen notes that the teachings in this section re-appear centuries later in the words of the 3rd century CE Neoplatonic Roman philosopher Plotinus in Enneades 5.
The universe, states the Chandogya Upanishad in section 3. The section 3. The metaphor of man's life as a Soma-festival is described through steps of a yajna fire ritual ceremony in section 3.
The volumes 3. One, in verse 3. Secondly, verse 3. This mention of " Krishna as the son of Devaki ", has been studied by scholars  as potential source of fables and Vedic lore about the major deity Krishna in the Mahabharata and other ancient literature.
Scholars have also questioned  whether this part of the verse is an interpolation, or just a different Krishna Devikaputra than deity Krishna,  because the much later age Sandilya Bhakti Sutras , a treatise on Krishna,  cites later age compilations such as Narayana Upanishad and Atharvasiras 6.
Others  state that the coincidence that both names, of Krishna and Devika, in the same verse cannot be dismissed easily and this Krishna may be the same as one found later, such as in the Bhagavad Gita.
The verse 3. Thou art the Aksitamasi indestructible, imperishable , Thou art the Acyutamasi imperturbable, unchangeable , Thou art the Prana-samsitamasi fountainhead, crest of life-principles. The fourth chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad opens with the story of king Janasruti and "the man with the cart" named Raikva.
Paul Deussen states that the underlying message of Samvarga Vidya is that the cosmic phenomenon and the individual physiology are mirrors, and therefore man should know himself as identical with all cosmos and all beings. King Janasruti is described as pious, extremely charitable, feeder of many destitutes, who built rest houses to serve the people in his kingdom, but one who lacked the knowledge of Brahman-Atman.
The story also declares the king as a seeker of knowledge, and eager to learn from the poorest. The Upanishad presents another symbolic conversational story of Satyakama , the son of Jabala, in volumes 4. The teacher asks, "my dear child, what family do you come from? The sage sends Satyakama to tend four hundred cows, and come back when they multiply into a thousand.
The story is notable for declaring that the mark of a student of Brahman is not parentage, but honesty. The story is also notable for the repeated use of the word Bhagavan to mean teacher during the Vedic era. The volumes 4. The boy Satyakama Jabala described in volumes 4. Upakosala has a conversation with sacrificial fires, which inform him that Brahman is life, Brahman is joy and bliss, Brahman is infinity, and the means to Brahman is not through depressing, hard penance.
The person that is seen in the eye,  that is the Atman Soul, Self. The Atman is the immortal one, the fearless one, the Brahman. The Upanishad asserts in verses 4. The fifth chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad opens with the declaration, . The first volume of the fifth chapter of the text tells a fable and prefaces each character with the following maxims,.
He who knows excellence,  becomes excellent. He who knows stability,  becomes stable. He who knows success,  becomes successful. He who knows home,  becomes home for others. The fable, found in many other Principal Upanishads,  describes a rivalry between eyes, ears, speech, mind. Prajapati states, "he by whose departure, the body is worst off, is the one". Prana , they acknowledge, empowers them all.
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The Upanishads are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings of Vedanta. The term Upanishad derives from upa- nearby , ni- at the proper place, down and sad, that is "sitting down near" a teacher in order to receive instruction. The most important upanishads that are commented by the founders all major schools of 'sanathana dharma' are Chandogya, Brihadaranyaka, Mandukya, Mundaka, Katha, Kena, Isa, Aitareya, Taittiriya, Prasna and Svetasvatara Upanishads. The Upanishads speak of a universal spirit Brahman and of an individual soul Atman ,and assert the identity of both. Brahman is the ultimate, both transcendent and immanent, the absolute infinite existence, the sum total of all that ever is, was, or shall be. The mystical nature and intense philosophical bent of the Upanishads has led to their explication in numerous manners, giving birth to three main schools advaita, visishtadvaita and dwaita of Vedanta.
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