As software skills rise to the forefront of design concerns, the art of structural conceptualization is often minimized. Structural engineering, however, requires the marriage of artistic and intuitive designs with mathematical accuracy and detail. Computer analysis works to solidify and extend the creative idea or concept that might have started out as a sketch on the back of an envelope. Bridging the gap between the conceptual approach and computer analysis, Structural Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings: Steel and Composite Construction integrates the design aspects of steel and composite buildings in one volume.
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As I reflect on my career as a practicing engineer, I am struck by the profound conceptual and methodological changes that computer-enhanced design has brought to our field.
Today, and especially in the last decade or so of computer use and software engineering, we can develop numerical solutions to an astonishing number of decimals with a degree of precision that was previously unfathomable. On account of liability issues, engineering innovations these days must also be analytically proven and strenuously tested to an extent unknown in the past. In spite of these concerns, the art of being able to smell or feel a reasonable solution must necessarily continue to exist.
Without such intuition and creativity, we might tend to rely on computer applications as engineering itself, instead of as a necessary tool. However, the current trend in engineering education seems to focus more on the behavior of computer-based mathematical models while seldom acknowledging their fallibilities.
Given this scenario, one may wonder if the era of engineers who endorsed structural attitudes based on their qualitative knowledge of the behavior of the structures is gone. My sense, however, is that such skills would be more powerful, accurate, and useful if built upon a solid foundation of engineering principles and conceptual knowledge.
I am not alone in voicing these ideas; a plethora of recently published journal articles, opinion pieces, and conference presentations address this ever-increasing gap between the conceptual approach and the scientific illusion created by computer solutions. These thoughts occur to me in my day-to-day engineering and more specifically as I was preparing this manuscript.
Therefore, the challenge I set for myself in this book was to bridge these two approaches: one that was based on intuitive skill and experience, and the other that relied on computer skills. Imagine then the design possibilities when experiential intuition marries unfathomable precision and numerical accuracy. Engineers are generally characterized as imaginative in their design approach as supported by historical evidence, which includes the creation of ancient structures, medieval cathedrals, and the skyscrapers of today.
None of these structures, except for those built in the last decade, were developed using intense calculations as we know them today, but were more products of inventive imagery. Even with the availability of immense analytical backup, imaginative thinking can and must be effectively used to apply basic concepts to complex problems.
Therefore, the stimulus for writing this book was to develop imaginative approaches by examples, and, where appropriate, relate these specific examples to building codes that are essential and mandatory tools of the trade.
The motivation that propelled me into writing this book addresses the question frequently proposed to the designer by the architects:. Such a time constraint does not allow for extensive research or for time-consuming analytical procedures.
What is needed is the proverbial back-of-the-envelope analysis that serves as a quick means of evaluating the efficacy of a concept that would then also serve as a check of computer solutions. Typically, when we prepare a back-of-the-envelope design, the purpose is to make sure we get into the ballpark; once you are in, it is easy enough to find the right row in the analysis phase, and, eventually, to find the right seat.
Finding the ballpark is thus an essential part of the conceptual design. As a designer you will soon learn that once a building program is set it cannot be changed, and the only real option is to mitigate mistakes in concept. On the other hand, if the first step is in the right direction with allowances for potential contingencies, the design will fl ow smoothly so long as the design has some breathing room.
Chapter 1 discusses selected fundamental concepts. The subsequent chapters provide detailed discussions of the basic concepts. Chapter 2 deals with the behavior of gravity components. In addition to common types of framings such as one-way and two-way slabs, novel systems, such as haunch girder systems, are also discussed.
The objective is to control the building behavior through a bracing program that is effective from both the perspectives of cost and behavior. The design concept must be less expensive and better than its alternative if it is to be accepted or adapted. Thus, it is incumbent on the designer to create a cost-effective design in order for it to be realized.
This chapter discusses fl at slab-frames, coupled shear walls, core-supported structures, tube buildings, and spine-wall structures. Chapter 4 deals with the determination of design wind loads using the provisions of ASCE 7— Wind-tunnel procedures using rigid, high-frequency base and aeroelastic models are discussed, including analytical methods for determining wind response and motion perception.
Guidelines are presented for evaluating the acceptability of wind-induced motions of tall buildings. Chapter 5 covers seismic designs. It develops a design methodology for each component and shows how seismically induced demands may force members to deform well beyond their elastic limits. Detailing considerations for such nonelastic excursions are discussed, and, where appropriate, codifi cation concepts are reduced to a level of analytical simplicity appropriate for the design.
The goals are to reduce component design to as simple a process as possible and to highlight design objectives often concealed in the codification procedure. This comparison will be particularly useful for engineers practicing in seismically low- and moderate-risk areas of the United States, who previously did not have to deal with aspects of seismic design.
This chapter concludes with an in-depth review of structural dynamic theory. Chapter 6 provides examples of seismic designs and detailing requirements of concrete buildings. Also presented are the designs of special moment frames, shear walls, fl oor diaphragm-chords, and collectors. Recent revisions to ACI are discussed in the final section. Chapter 7 is devoted to the structural rehabilitation of seismically vulnerable buildings.
Design differences between a code-sponsored approach and the concept of ductility trade-off for strength are discussed, including seismic deficiencies and common upgrade methods. Chapter 8 is dedicated to the design of tall buildings. It begins with a discussion on the evolution of their structural forms. Case studies of structural systems that range from run-of-the-mill bracing techniques to unique systems—including megaframes and spine-wall structures—are examined.
Finally, Chapter 9 covers a wide range of topics. It begins with a discussion on damping devices that are used to reduce the perception of building motions, including passive viscoleatic dampers, tuned mass dampers, slashing water dampers, tuned liquid column dampers,. And simple and nested pendulum dampers. It then deals with seismic isolation and energy dissipation techniques. This is followed by a discussion on preliminary analysis techniques such as portal and cantilever methods and an in-depth discourse on torsion analysis of open section shear walls with a particular emphasis on their warping behavior.
The final section of this chapter covers performance-based designs PBDs for the structural design of new buildings.
This approach, used for the seismic design of very tall buildings constructed in the western United States within the last few years, has set in motion new ways of doing things. A discussion on the more challenging design issues that may defy codified doctrines, such as height limits, the selection of response modification factors, and peer-review requirements, is presented to introduce engineers to this emerging technology.
Before concluding the preface, it is worth remembering that reinforced concrete as a building material provides a medium that inspires architectural freedom. The design is not peculiar to the material and must satisfy the same basic fundamental laws of equilibrium, compatibility, and compliance with the appropriate stress—strain relationship.
This book is a modest attempt to explore the world of concrete as it applies to the construction of buildings while simultaneously striving to seek answers to the challenges I set for myself. It is directed toward consulting engineers, and, within the academy, the book may be helpful to educators and students alike,. Particularly as a teaching tool in courses for students who have completed an introductory course in structural engineering and seek a deeper understanding of structural design principles and practices.
It is my hope that this book serves as a comprehensive reference for the structural design of reinforced concrete buildings, particularly those that are tall. This website is in compliance with the Digital Millennium Copyrights Act. Powered By : Afrodien. Book Details :. Design Concept Chapter 2. Gravity Systems Chapter 3. Lateral Load-Resisting Systems Chapter 4. Wind Loads Chapter 5.
Seismic Design Chapter 6. Seismic Design Examples and Details Chapter 7. Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings Chapter 8. Tall Buildings Chapter 9. It begins with a discussion on damping devices that are used to reduce the perception of building motions, including passive viscoleatic dampers, tuned mass dampers, slashing water dampers, tuned liquid column dampers, And simple and nested pendulum dampers.
It is directed toward consulting engineers, and, within the academy, the book may be helpful to educators and students alike, Particularly as a teaching tool in courses for students who have completed an introductory course in structural engineering and seek a deeper understanding of structural design principles and practices.
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Steel Concrete Composite Design by Bungale Taranath, First Edition
Bungale S. Taranath
As I reflect on my career as a practicing engineer, I am struck by the profound conceptual and methodological changes that computer-enhanced design has brought to our field. Today, and especially in the last decade or so of computer use and software engineering, we can develop numerical solutions to an astonishing number of decimals with a degree of precision that was previously unfathomable. On account of liability issues, engineering innovations these days must also be analytically proven and strenuously tested to an extent unknown in the past. In spite of these concerns, the art of being able to smell or feel a reasonable solution must necessarily continue to exist.