Small fruit becoming grizzled and orange when ripe. Its juice is sweet and sticky and can be chewed much like gum. Seeds are not available for the Mama-Cadela. Please visit our seed store to view current selections.
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BG Moraceae, with a high frequency in regions of the Brazilian cerrado shrubland and popularly known as "mamacadela", holds photosensitizing furocoumarins. Therefore, the development of acute pre-clinical toxicity trials has been proposed approximate lethal dose, ALD, and median lethal dose, LD50 of the BG root exsudate in laboratory animals. Male, albino mice weighing between 25 and 30 g, in good sanitation conditions have been used. The mice received water and food ad libitum. The BG powder was mixed in 0.
The LD50 was obtained through the Lichtfield and Wilcoxon method. A public domain software was used for the calculations. The LD50 po was The product was considered as of being of low toxicity, taking into account only the single dose acute toxicity. Keywords: Brosimum gaudichaudii , Moraceae, Acute toxicity.
Assim, a DLA p. A DL50 p. O produto foi considerado possuir baixa toxicidade, considerando apenas uma dose neste ensaio de toxicidade aguda. Unitermos: Brosimum gaudichaudii , Moraceae, Toxicidade aguda. Since ancestral times, medicinal plants have been largely used by mankind for preventing and curing illnesses. Along thousands of years of successful and unsuccessful experiences, knowledge has been accumulated about both their benign and malign effects.
Today, many illnesses can be treated by means of this natural resource. Beginning with the true laboratory provided by nature, it has been possible to obtain a good degree of pharmaceuticals that are presently used, such as: morphine poppies , salicylic acid willow , cocaine coca leaf , atropine belladonna , digoxine foxglove , quinine cinchona or quinine-tree , caffeine coffee , neuromuscular blocking agents curare , among others.
The employment of pharmaceutical technology has provided for the diffusion of industrialized drugs as a predominant therapeutic resource, but very costly for patients. Therefore, the social and economic conditions in force, especially in third world countries, have led the lower classes to search for much cheaper and relatively safe therapeutic alternatives such as, for example, medicinal herbs.
At the same time, in recent years a "return to the origins" has been observed, provided by the need for new drugs, with lower toxicity levels and lower costs. The pharmaceutical industry has encouraged this trend, as it recognizes an opportunity to provide the marketplace with a pharmacotherapeutic arsenal with scientifically proven alternatives. A detailed study of natural products becomes necessary in order to discover its potential collateral effects and main recommendations.
Thus, the population will be offered additional and accessible options in its fight against the so many illnesses. Additionally, medicinal herbs constitute the main hope in the treatment of illnesses whose causes are unknown and that very often remain without treatment.
Estimates are that our planet contains about , botanic species. Of these, only an expressionless percentage has been investigated as to its pharmacology and toxicology. Encouraging research about natural products would not only benefit the poor population, but also the Brazilian health system as a whole, as it would reduce the demand for public services, since it encourages oriented self-medication, of a much lower cost and usually quite low risk Ribeiro et al.
Its fruit, of a yellow-orange color, is chewed as chewing gum, due to the latex it contains and due to its flavor, while the powder obtained by scrapping the roots is used as a fragrance Hoehne, Usually plants used for fighting vitiligo leucomelanodermia , contain furocoumarins.
Furocoumarins are of a broad spectrum of application in the treatment of leucomelanodermias, with photosensitizing activity upon the skin Dean, ; Alchorne, Many studies have been carried out about this type of activity of the furocoumarins Pozetti, ; Azambuja, ; Parsad et al ; Jimbow, It is known that "all fluorescent substances found in nature, whatever the chemical function they belong to, are active therapeutically and pharmacologically without exception" Pozetti, In , El-Mofty launched a treatment based on the use of photosensitizing substances obtained from Ammi majus Linn, which contains amoidinemethoxypsoralen, amoidineisoamylinpsoralen and bergapten as active principles, that depended on exposure to sun rays in order to promote re-pigmentation Azambuja, ; Sampaio et al.
The employment of 8-methoxypsoralen and trimethoxypsoralen, followed by exposition to ultraviolet light photochemotherapy with UV-A, PUVA of benzoquinone monobenzylic ether are being studied nowadays and since the 's for repigmentation Martins et al. Synthetic similar products have already been found in the pharmaceutical market for use in the formulation of world-class drugs for the treatment of vitiligo and other depigmentating skin diseases.
After a couple of weeks of oral ministration and exposure to the morning sun, the topical treatment with hydro-alcoholic solution or cream and exposure to the afternoon sun is started. Inadvertent exposure to the sun should be avoided, due to the risk of burning Sampaio et al. The differences in concentration between the product for internal use and the products for external use must reflect eventual losses during the pharmacokinetic route of the active principles, in the stages of absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion, until they reach the action site, which corresponds to the area of epidermis suffering the depigmentation characteristic of the several forms of manifestation of vitiligo.
First of all, it is necessary to assess the acute toxicity of Brosimum gaudichaudii. Of the Brosimum gaudichaudii - BG Figure 2.
In macroscopic terms, the bark presents itself in either curved or plane fragments, not rolled in, of varied length and width, 5 to 10 mm in thickness. The external surface is made up by a brown rugose suber. The stem bark surface presents itself even more rugose and dark. Once the suber is removed, the light brown cortical parenchyma, somewhat striped in the longitudinal direction, appears.
The internal surface is light brown and fibrose. It has characteristic odor and flavor. This powder, in microscopic terms, presents itself as pieces in varied shapes and sizes, in the amber color, semi-transparent when observed under the microscope under direct light. When observed under a diffuse light or with the naked eye, it presents itself as a very fine powder, of characteristic odor and acrid flavor.
The dosage methodology of the bergapten and psoralen biomarkers in the used exsudate is in a development stage. For determining the acute toxicity of BG approximate lethal dose, ALD, and average lethal dose, LD50 , albino male mice were used, weighing between 35 and 45 g Twelve hours before the experiment started, animals were submitted to food fasting, and the food returned two hours after the drug was ministered to each animal. For determining LD50, the mice were divided into 2 large groups, according to the administration via: per oral and intraperitoneal.
The animals that died during the experiment were examined macroscopically, aiming at identifying eventual morphological alterations. Some organs liver, heart, small intestine, stomach, lung, kidney, spleen, brain were forwarded for histopathological study.
At the end of the experiment, all surviving animals were sacrificed by means of inhalation of chloroform and were macroscopically examined. Oral administration of BG root exsudate induced animals to death, proportionally to the administered doses Table 1. Logarithms and probits were determined for each dose, aiming at calculating the median lethal dose DL50 , which has resulted in The ip DL50 was calculated by the same procedure, producing a value of The seriousness of the intoxication signs was dose-dependant Table 3.
Deaths occurred from the 24 hour period until 5 days after the administration. The higher doses have led to lethality in a much shorter period of time. A difference in the amount of hemosiderin was noticed in the spleen of the test group animals, in comparison to the control group. Some kidney tissue cuts demonstrated the occurrence of vessel dilation and hemorrhage.
The influence of such alterations upon the death cause must be taken into account in sub-acute and chronic toxicity tests. The increase of hemosiderin was the only statistically meaningful difference between the test and control group animals in the histopathological study.
The presence of a high amount of hemosiderin in the spleen indicates it suffered previous hemorrhage, attributed to the high dose of the applied product.
The observed hemosiderin is the result of the destruction of red blood cells in this organ, liberating its content. Thus, when the hematoxylin-eosin technique is employed the coloring becomes yellowish. The other analyzed innards presented a normal appearance, demonstrating no alteration caused by the product applied to the animals.
As the use of phytotherapeutical products is a common practice in our country and considering that several botanical species present toxic effects, establishing the experimental toxicity can contribute to avoiding or preventing organic damage Lapa et al.
In the case of the botanical species under study, there are no citations in literature about the toxicity of BG root bark powder.
Such hypothesis - of low oral acute toxicity - was partially confirmed by the present study. Nevertheless, toxicity studies of repeated dose sub-acute and chronic are required in order to assess how far organic systems may be affected when animals are treated in the medium and long run, since the product is recommended for lengthy treatments. Synopsis of the plants known as medicinal and poisonous in Northeast of Brazil.
Rev Bras Farmacogn 17 Survey of medicinal plants used in the region Northeast of Brazil. Rev Bras Farmacogn 18 Alchorne MMA Discromias , In: Prado F. Psoralen photochemotherapic of cutaneous disorders. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 20 Auad A Azambuja R Tratamento do vitiligo. Brasil Brito AS Dean FM DEF Jornal Brasileiro de Medicina, Rio de Janeiro. Hoehne FC Jimbow K Therapeutic advances. Dermatol Clin 16 Toxic effects of garlic extract and garlic oil in rats.
Indian J Exp Biol 27 What is it? Is it important? JAMA
There is a shortage of solid oral dosage forms developed from standardized extracts of this plant specie. This study is aimed to obtain pellets with a standardized liquid extract of B. The standardized liquid extract of B. Pellets were obtained through a mixture of extract of g of B. These pellets were coated with a suspension composed of titanium dioxide, aluminum red lacquer, ethyl cellulose, talc and magnesium stearate. Before the photostability test, the uncoated pellets showed psoralen content equal to 0. After exposure to one level 3 J.
Alicastrum P. Browne Brosimopsis S. Moore Galactodendron Kunth Piratinera Aubl. Brosimum is a genus of plants in the family Moraceae , native to tropical regions of the Americas. The breadnut B.
If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. If you would like to support this site, please consider Donating. Home Search Contact. Moving towards ripeness Photograph by: Mauricio Mercadante. Leaves Photograph by: Mauricio Mercadante.