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The The horse horse and and. Man Man in in european european. WorldvieW, WorldvieW,. Burial Burial riTes, riTes,. The The horse horse and and Man Man. Ar Deputy Editor in Chief Habil. Articles appearing in this journal are peer-reviewed by either internal or external reviewers. Published with a grant from the Directorate for the Commemoration of the Millenium of Lithuania. Cover illustration: A brooch from Laiviai Kretinga district.

ISSN Editorial board. A Problem of the Earliest Horse Domestication. Data from the Neolithic. When did Domesticated Horses Appear in Lithuania? Images of the Horse and Horseman. Corded Ware Culture Studies. Liina Maldre and Heidi Luik. Archaeozoological and Archaeological Data. Andrei V. The Key Studies. Bartosz Kontny. Horse and its Use in the Przeworsk Culture. Wojciech Nowakowski. Horse Burials in Roman Period Cemeteries. Konstantin Skvortsov. Burials of Riders and Horses Dated.

Former Jaugehnen , Cemetery on the Sambian Peninsula. Christine Reich. Susanne Wilbers-Rost and Achim Rost. Michel Kazanski. Laurynas Kurila. Nina Lau. Christer Westerdahl.

The Horse as a Liminal Agent. Dieter Quast. The merovingian Period Equestrians in Figural Art. Konstantin Skvortsov and Aleksander Khokhlov. Preliminary Publication. Horses in Ethnoarchaeology and Folklore. Sonja Hukantaival. Guidelines for Authors. I miss the horse. I simply miss the horse,. I want something heavy to drag, or just — to graze together.

Vilnius, But if we have a draught horse, we call it arklys , or an old useless horse or jade or nag, rip, screw, hack, knacker, weed, plug — kuinas. One uses the arklys , however, to plough. So, based on age-old traditions, it is better not to buy.

These first few paragraphs of the preface are not al - lotted for an analysis of the horse in Lithuanian eth- nological material. By their themes, the articles can be organized into eight chapters. Unfortunately, the military and the horse were inseparable in the history of humanity; this is illustrated by the example of the Kalkriese battlefield that continues to be investigated, as well as the opera- tions of the Slavic cavalry during the Gothic war in Italy Susanne Wilbers-rost and achim rost; Michel Kazanski.

Moreover, apart from being a status marker with strong ritual connotations, it might be suggested that the horse in prehistory was a liminal agent between sea and land Christer Westerdahl. GreIMaS, a. Vilnius—chicago: Mokslas. Available from:. Leksika , I, Vilnius: Mokslas, The authors discuss the archaeozoological indicators for horse domestication, and come to a conclusion that a considerable increase of horse remains, accompanied by a presence of other certainly domesticated species could be one of them.

It would suggest the earliest horse domestication known today. Discov- ered in during a systematic survey carried on by Polish-Uzbek Archaeological Expedition, it is situated some km North of Bukhara city, in the south-east- ern part of a steppe-desert area, called the Kyzyl-kums Fig.

A neolithic camp covers a fragment of a relatively plain promontory, closed from the East by a limestone island hill, and from the remaining three sides — by the steep gorges Szymczak, Khudzhanazarov , pp. By that time more than m2 were carefully explored, yielding an extremely rich and valuable collection of artifacts: more than flint, stone and pottery. BP, and a middle neolith one, 14C dated to ca — cal. Al- most one and a half millennium lasting settlement gap between those two phases, according to our data, was caused by the deluging of the area of the camp by rais- ing waters of an adjacent great water reservoir, called by us the Io Sea Szymczak, Khudzhanazarov Additionally, we found it possible to divide an early neolithic phase into three sub-phases, marked starting from the youngest as: a — ca — cal.

BP, b — ca — cal. BP, and c — ca — cal. BP Szymczak et al. One of the most interesting groups of finds discovered during an excavation was a rich collection of animal remains, connected directly with the Neolithic settle-. To the right: a copy of an old Persian miniature showing a white horse in Central Asian steppe painted by Toshev Davlat from Bukhara, Among the bone and tooth fragments, the horse remains played a very important role.

Already in the. In comparison with other Eurasian Neolithic sites such numbers are rather unique. Could it evidence,. Let us try to have a closer look on this problem. Some remarks on horse domestication and its indicators. A general process of horse domestication is not recog-. If we set the basic questions: what progenitor, where, and when was domesticated, it would.

It seems that relatively the least complicated is to point out the progenitor, which was probably a wild horse, Equus ferus , occurring in the Early Holocene over the vast territories of Europe and Asia from Portugal, all the way through France, Mid- dle and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, down to western China Benecke On such a large area it could develop various local forms, among which described are two main subspecies: tarpan, and Przewalski horse.

In theory both those subspecies could be considered as the progenitors of the contemporary domesticated horses, which domestication most probably had a poly- topic character.

Polytopy concerns all the animals of a wide range of occurrence, because their domestication could be realized by different human groups independ-. Table I.

Neverthe- less, it seem unlikely that Przewalski horse was a direct progenitor of domesticated horse for one fundamental reason — it has a different number of chromosomes. A process of domestication could start nearly every-. The most difficult quest would be. Usually a chronology of domes-.

Unfortunately, in case of horse such changes could not be easily demonstrated, most probably because for a very long time the ways of life of wild and domesticated horse were quite similar Fig. In a situation when we do not have at our disposal the unequivocal morphological determinants, we should seek for other features, which could at least suggest domestication. Today we accept several such features. One of them is an appearance in archaeological mate-.

It was produced. In Poland many of such burials are found in the late Neolithic sites attributed to Globular Amphorae and Corded Ware cultures Kaczorowska However, we should not forget that in Polish Neolithic we have numerous intentional burials of wild animals as well. For the third, analyzed are also the changes and an. Benecke observed the significant increase of variability of lon - gitude of the third phalang of the Bronze and Iron Age.

Such a phenomenon is confirmed in numerous bone collections from Spain, France, Germany, Poland, Ukraine, and western Asia. At last, an often used indicator for horse domestication. This feature seems to be quite reliable, because it shows the growth of interest in a certain species among the prehistoric peoples.

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