In and there are five hardware interrupts and two hardware interrupts respectively. Bu adding , we can increase the interrupt handling capability. This chip combines the multi-interrupt input source to single interrupt output. This provides 8-interrupts from IR0 to IR7.
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The initial part was , a later A suffix version was upward compatible and usable with the or processor. The combines multiple interrupt input sources into a single interrupt output to the host microprocessor, extending the interrupt levels available in a system beyond the one or two levels found on the processor chip. The was introduced as part of Intel's MCS 85 family in However, while not anymore a separate chip, the A interface is still provided by the Platform Controller Hub or Southbridge chipset on modern x86 motherboards.
Up to eight slave s may be cascaded to a master to provide up to 64 IRQs. The IRR maintains a mask of the current interrupts that are pending acknowledgement, the ISR maintains a mask of the interrupts that are pending an EOI, and the IMR maintains a mask of interrupts that should not be sent an acknowledgement. Edge and level interrupt trigger modes are supported by the A. Fixed priority and rotating priority modes are supported.
The A provides additional functionality compared to the in particular buffered mode and level-triggered mode and is upward compatible with it. Programming an in conjunction with DOS and Microsoft Windows has introduced a number of confusing issues for the sake of backwards compatibility, which extends as far back as the original PC introduced in The first issue is more or less the root of the second issue.
DOS device drivers are expected to send a non-specific EOI to the s when they finish servicing their device. This prevents the use of any of the 's other EOI modes in DOS, and excludes the differentiation between device interrupts rerouted from the master to the slave This was done despite the first 32 INTINT1F interrupt vectors being reserved by the processor for internal exceptions this was ignored for the design of the PC for some reason.
Because of the reserved vectors for exceptions most other operating systems map at least the master IRQs if used on a platform to another interrupt vector base offset. Since most other operating systems allow for changes in device driver expectations, other modes of operation, such as Auto-EOI, may be used.
This also allows a number of other optimizations in synchronization, such as critical sections, in a multiprocessor x86 system with s. Since the ISA bus does not support level triggered interrupts, level triggered mode may not be used for interrupts connected to ISA devices.
On MCA systems, devices use level triggered interrupts and the interrupt controller is hardwired to always work in level triggered mode. They are 8-bits wide, each bit corresponding to an IRQ from the s.
The first is an IRQ line being deasserted before it is acknowledged. This may occur due to noise on the IRQ lines. In edge triggered mode, the noise must maintain the line in the low state for ns. When the noise diminishes, a pull-up resistor returns the IRQ line to high, thus generating a false interrupt. In level triggered mode, the noise may cause a high signal level on the systems INTR line.
If the system sends an acknowledgment request, the has nothing to resolve and thus sends an IRQ7 in response. This first case will generate spurious IRQ7's. A similar case can occur when the unmask and the IRQ input de-assertion are not properly synchronized.
The second is the master 's IRQ2 is active high when the slave 's IRQ lines are inactive on the falling edge of an interrupt acknowledgment. This second case will generate spurious IRQ15's, but is rare. The labels on the pins on an are IR0 through IR7. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.
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